Statistical survey on Innovation activity is conducted once every two years and the observation period covered is a three-year period. The survey provides comparable information on product innovations and business processes presented by enterprises in Albania.
Innovation concepts are modified as innovation is now analyzed according to product and process innovations (including organizational and marketing innovation).
Conducted in all European countries and based on internationally harmonized definitions, this survey allows comparisons between the different regional, EU 27 as well as Switzerland, Norway, Iceland countries. It allows an economic analysis of innovation and better guide innovation policy, both in Albania and in Europe.
The main areas of dissemination are the activity sector of the company described according to the Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community (NACE Rev. 2) and the size of the enterprise.
The observations units are all enterprises of the non-financial and financial sector with 10 or more employees mainly engaged in the following Sections and divisions of NACE Rev.2:
- (B) Mining,
- (C) Manufacturing,
- (D) Electricity, gas steam and air conditioning supply,
- (E) Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities
- (G46) Wholesale trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles
- (H) Transportation and storage,
- (J) Information and communication,
- (K) Financial and insurance activities,
- (M71-73) Architectural and engineering activities; technical testing and analysis. Research and development, Publicity and market research.
The statistical population statistics comprise all active enterprises in Albania of all legal forms. The sample consists of all enterprises that, according to statistical business register were active in December of the reference year in economic activities covered by Innovation statistics excluding:
- Local units.
- Enterprises with the main activity code (NACE) that are out of scope of Innovation activity survey.
- Enterprises with less than 10 employees.
Legal acts and other agreements
The legal basis on National Level consists on
- Law No.17/2018, "On Official Statistics"
- Official Statistics National Program, 2017 - 2021
On European Level
- Commission regulations (EC): Decision No 1608/2003/EC of The European Parliament and of the Council of 22 July 2003 concerning the production and development of Community statistics on science and technology 5
- Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 995/2012 of 26 October 2012 laying down detailed rules for the implementation of Decision No 1608/2003/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the production and development of Community statistics on science and technology
- Oslo Manual 4th Edition
Statistical concepts and definitions
The boundary between technological and non-technological innovations is increasingly being held. As a result, the 4th edition of the Oslo Manual (October 2018) now includes only the following two types of innovation:
Product innovation: the introduction on the market of a new or significantly improved good or service compared to the products previously developed by the company. It includes significant design changes and digital goods or services, and excludes the resale in the same condition as new goods or services and changes of an aesthetic nature.
Process innovation: the implementation in the company of a new or significantly improved process compared to the processes previously used by the company. It concerns production and development methods, logistics and distribution, information and communication system, administrative tasks and accounting, organization of procedures, management of relations with suppliers, work organization, decision-making processes, human resources, marketing, packaging, pricing and after-sales service.
In the 3rd edition of the Oslo Manual, i.e. for Innovation surveys from 2008 to 2016, 4 types of innovation were distinguished:
Product innovations, i.e. the introduction on the market of a new or significantly improved good or service compared to the products previously developed by the company in terms of its essential characteristics, its user-friendliness (ease of use), its components (or its use) and the integrated elements;
Process innovation, i.e. the implementation of a new or significantly improved production process, distribution method or support activity or support. Innovations related only to organization or marketing were excluded;
Organizational innovation: a new way of operating the company (including knowledge management), a new way of organizing work or its external relations that was not previously used in the company;
Marketing innovation: this refers to the implementation of new concepts or new sales strategies that differ significantly from existing sales methods in the company and that have not been used before. It includes changes in the design, packaging or presentation of a good or service, its positioning, promotion or price if they have a significant impact.
An innovation is a new or improved product (good or service) or business process that differs significantly from the enterprise’s previous products or business processes and that has been implemented on the market or brought into use by the enterprise.
Innovation activity includes all developmental, financial and commercial activities undertaken by the enterprise that are intended to result in innovations.
Cooperation in innovation activity is the active participation of enterprises or other organizations. Partners do not need to benefit economically. Pure contracting is excluded if there is no active cooperation. An innovation-active enterprise is an enterprise engaged during the observation period in one or more activities to develop or implement new or improved products or business processes.
Public authorities: Includes local or regional authorities, national government (including central government agencies or ministries), EU Horizon 2020 Programme for Research and Innovation and any other financial support from a European Union institution. Public financial support includes financial support through grants, subsidized loans and loan guarantees. Funding of activities under contract from the public sector is excluded.