- Penal offences and perpetrators
INSTAT collect, analyze and publish data regarding criminal offences, perpetrators and damaged persons from criminal offences. Crime statistics refers to recorded specific offences by police, the classification in crime and contraventions is done based on Criminal Code of Albania. These recorded cases are related to incidents as occurred, and not to the trials, the verdict of which is given by the law bodies.
Data on perpetrators are based on suspected persons in committing an offence. Are included data on perpetrators by specific criminal offences and total perpetrators by age group (juvenile and adult). Attention should be paid not only to recorded penal offences or the perpetrators, but also to protect the position of the person injured by the commission of the offense.
- Statistics on convicted persons
Statistics on convicted persons reflect data on number of persons to whom criminal sanctions are applying, consisting in restriction of certain rights that they enjoyed until the commission of the offence. The main sanctions are prison, fine and alternative sanctions. Alternative sanctions may consist on: Fragmentation of imprisonment, suspending the execution of a sentence, Suspension of imprisonment and compulsion to perform labor in favor of public interest.
Statistical data on convictions includes: convicted persons by sex and age group, convicted persons by crimes, by district courts and convicted persons of crimes and contraventions by sex.
Statistics on prisoners include juvenile persons (under 18 years old), adults (over 18 years old) by gender who have been convicted by a final decision and pre-detainees over the years. The number of prisoners shows the prisoners' situation in a given year, including new arrivals and exits that occur for the period in question, and is calculated as an average of the number of prisoners per month.
These indicators are calculated on the data provided by the Directorate of State Police, the General Directorate of Prisons and the annual estimates of the resident population by INSTAT
Criminal offences: Behavior, acts which damaged legal values of a certain community. They are divided into crimes and contraventions.
Contraventions: acts that violate legal or damaged goods with a value of less than offenses (crimes) therefore violate the legal order but do not affect its bases and have serious social consequences.
Recorded criminal offences: Recorded criminal offences in police or the police have knowledge of them in other ways.
Crime against a person: Acts of intent or negligence that affect or threaten life, health, freedoms, sexual intolerance, honor and dignity of a person, specially protected by the legislation criminal
Crime against property and economic sphere: Includes theft of property, frauds, crimes in the field of customs, taxation, destruction of property and crimes that violate the legal regime of land.
Intentional homicide: A criminal offense by which another person is intentionally or negligently deprived of life. Are included articles of Penal Code: article 76 murder, article 77 murder connected with another crime, 78 premeditated homicide, 78/a murder for blood feud, 79 homicides committed in other specific circumstances, 79/a public officials murder, 79/b police murder, 79/c murder for family relationship, 80 infanticide.
Crimes against health: Are included articles: 86 – Torture, Article 87 - Torture resulting into serious consequences Article 88 - Serious intentional injury, Article 89 - Non-serious intentional injury Article 89/a Article 90 - Other intentional harm
Sexual crimes: Legal relations established in the sphere of security of sexual freedom and the normal development of sexual formation, specially protected with criminal legislation. Are included article 100-108/a of Penal Code of Albania
Fraud: Taking or disposition of a lie or misappropriation of property or property rights of a natural person, a legal person or a state for the purpose of obtaining material benefit for himself or for others. Are included articles 143-149/b of Penal Code of Albania.
Counterfeit: is included article 183 of Penal Code of Albania.
Violation of traffic rules: Is included article 290 - Violation of road traffic regulations, article 291 –Driving vehicles inappropriately.
Drug crimes: Includes offences as production, cultivation, trafficking and sale of narcotics. Are included article 283 – Production and sale of narcotics, article 283/a - Trafficking of narcotics, article 284 – Cultivation of narcotic plants, article 284/c – Production and manufacturing of narcotic and psychotropic substances.
Domestic violence: Includes acts such as battery, or other violent criminal offence, serious threat or injury against a person who is the spouse, former-spouse, partner or former partner, child or family member, resulting in infringement of the physical, psycho-social, and economic integrity of the person.
Perpetrators: Persons who in their action or inaction allow happening a criminal offence, causes consequences of the offence. Suspected persons over 14 years old have criminal responsibility, while perpetrators under 14 years old are exempted from criminal responsibility.
Juvenile: Every person under 18 years old.
Convicted persons: A person who his behavior has affected or damaged legal goods protected by law. For these persons are applying criminal sanctions consisting in obtaining or restriction of certain rights that they enjoyed until the commission of the offence.
Criminal cases: Any criminal cases processed under national criminal law.
Civil cases: Any cases processed under national civil/commercial law.
Terminated cases: Number of proceedings finalized/disposed of by a court decision.
Pending cases: Number of proceedings not finalized/disposed of as of 31 December.
Number of prisoners: The number of persons held in prisons, other institutions, juvenile detention institutions, psychiatric hospitals or other hospitals. Include both inmates and pre-detainees.
Inmate: Any person, Albanian or foreign, punished by final sentence of imprisonment and in line with the international agreements, punished by a foreign judgment, in compliance with the respective procedural requirements.
Detainees are person, citizen, foreign or stateless, to who is taken a security measure “detention or arrest in prison”.
Criminality rate: The number of total recorded offences expressed per 10 thousand inhabitants;
Prisoner’s rate: Number of prisoners (inmate + detainees) over a period of 1 year expressed per 10 thousand inhabitants;
The percentage of detainees in deprivation of liberty: Expresses the total number of persons held in detention have not been convicted yet, as a percentage of the total number of persons held in prisons;
Police personnel rate express the total number of officers per 100,000 populations in a given year;