The population pyramid
The population pyramid gives a clear view of the population by showing how many people there are in the country at different ages, and whether there is any difference in the number of women and men. The way the population is made up right now, the pyramid looks more like a tower. This is because the number of elderly people has been increasing in the population, younger people have emigrated and at the same time, the number of births has been decreasing.
Some of the bars (horizontals) are particularly long. This is because there are currently many people in the age groups 20-24, 25–29, and 55–59 years in the population. This reflects the fact that many children were born in the 1960s and in the early 1990s.
Fig. 1 Population Pyramid, 2011-2019
The pyramid shows males and females separately
The graph shows how many men and women in different age groups there were in 2011 and in 2019. In the illustration above, 2011 and 2019 are compared. The oldest age group is on top, the youngest is at the bottom.
Age groups explain the structure of population by age at a certain time:
- There is an ageing tendency of the population.
- A reduction of the pyramid base is a result of the decrease in the number of births.
- An enlargement of the top of the pyramid is a result of an increase in life expectancy.
- Young people tend to emigrate, and this reduces the proportion of young people and increases that of older people.
Sex composition shows how many women and men are at different ages, at a certain time:
In 2011, more men than women lived in Albania: 50.1 %, were men and 49.9 % were women.
In 2019, it changed: 49.9 % were men and 50.1 % were women.
How the population pyramid looks for a particular year depends on:
- How many were born in different years?
In 2018, 28.9 thousand babies were born around vs. 34.3 thousand in 2011.
- How long people live?
Life expectancy at birth has increased from 2011 to 2018 for both sexes. In 2018 life expectancy at birth was estimated at 77.4 years for men and 80.5 for women. This means that women live about 3 years longer than men.
- How many immigrate and emigrate?
During the period 2011-2018, each year on average around 45 thousand people emigrated from the country, while around 27 thousand people immigrated into the country.
Women in Albania are delivering fewer children today than before, thus slowing down the natural increase of population. During 2018, 28,934 babies were born, compared to 34,285 in 2011. This is a decrease of 5,351 births. Slightly more boys are born than girls. The gender ratio at birth is 1.08, which indicates that for every 100 born girls, 108 boys are born.
More women at elder ages
Starting from the age 40 years old, there are usually more women than men in each age group. This is because women tend to live longer. Life expectancy at birth illustrates this better: as we mentioned earlier, it has been an increase from 2011 to 2018 for both sexes. In 2018 life expectancy at birth was estimated at 77.4 years for men and 80.5 for women. This means that women live about 3 years longer than males.